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Manhãs de sábado têm sido bastante previsíveis para mim: roupa de treino, cafe, escolher um podcast e fazer minha corrida. Nas últimas semanas, por obvias razões, tenho sempre optado por ouvir analises sobre o mercado de energia, mas ontem, em uma tentativa de ignorar os incontáveis problemas geopolíticos que estamos vivendo, resolvi ouvir um episódio de Freakonomics com o titulo mais "cheap" possível: How to Change Your Mind.

Comecei a ouvir o episódio sem grades expectativas, 48 minutos (tamanho ideal para minha corrida) e eu já estava esperando algo bem clássico: 48 minutos de como defendemos nossas opinões por medo do julgamento de terceiros, mesmo quando sabemos que estamos errados, toda a questão sobre ego e os benefícios que mudar de opinião podem proporcionar quando voce se desprende do orgulho, e tenta analisar a situação de uma forma mais elevada e sem pre-conceitos.

Play. Stephen Dubner, Freakonomics host, começa o show entrevistando Robert Sapolsky, neurocientista Professor em Stanford. Professor Robert, com sua dicção perfeita e uma voz muito tranquila, inicia contando como, aos 14 anos, ele, vindo de uma familia judia ortodoxa extremamente religiosa, se da conta que Deus e livre arbítrio não existem e de como ele fingiu ser religioso para o pai até a morte do mesmo, quando Robert ja estava com seus +30 anos.

Robert explica que seu fingimento evitou que o pai ficasse com o coração partido, o Professor sabia que não adiantaria ter uma discussão sobre religião, dado que as pessoas são menos abertas a novidades quando mais velhas. Até esse momento do podcast nada de novo, apenas admirei a capacidade do Professor de evitar sofrimento a uma pessoa querida, e pensei "ainda sou jovem e portanto mais aberta a novidades".


Minha supresa veio imediatamente depois, quando Professor Robert de certa forma define a janela humana de abertura para o "novo":

"O que você acaba vendo é que basicamente se você não estiver ouvindo um certo estilo de música aos 28 anos, 95% de chance de nunca ouvir. Aos 35 anos, se você não está comendo sushi, 95% de chance de nunca comer. Em outras palavras, essas janelas de abertura à novidade se fecham. Mas então, como biólogo, o que me surpreendeu é que você pega um rato de laboratório e observa quando em sua vida ele está disposto a experimentar um novo tipo de comida – e é exatamente a mesma curva! O equivalente a ratos de laboratório de 10 anos odeiam brócolis tanto quanto humanos de 10 anos. E no final da adolescência, início da idade adulta, há esse desejo repentino de novidade. E é aí que os primatas pegam e deixam suas tropas de origem e se transferem para novas. E então, quando você for um rato adulto de meia-idade, nunca mais tentará nada de novo pelo resto da vida. É exatamente a mesma curva"


Sim, fiquei chocada. Ainda não tenho 35, mas também já não tenho mais 28.


Stephen continua o podcast entrevistando mais neurocientistas e desenvolvendo o conceito de como nosso cérebro, apesar de menos propício a receber positivamente novidades/mudar de opinião, está constantemente se reconectando de maneiras importantes e sujeito a novas experiencias sensoriais quando aprendemos algo novo, seja algo profundo ou algo idiota.


Terminei a corrida e o episódio pensando em tentar algo novo, mesmo que pequeno e daí veio a vontade de escrever, em português, de uma maneira bastante honesta sobre o que eu ouvi nessa manhã de Sábado e também Domingo, dado que passei o dia vendo entrevistas do Professor Robert sobre os mais variados aspectos, desde testosterona, livre arbítrio e stress até "nós" vs "eles" em conflitos militares... Deixo o link do podcast e das melhores entrevistas embaixo. Obrigada. Links

https://freakonomics.com/podcast/how-to-change-your-mind/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yk5RDy6xFJQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DtmwtjOoSYU

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3O61I0pNPg8


Just started my Sunday drinking my light French press coffee, checking my emails and browsing around when an astonishing article by Alice Evans came up. The article says the obvious in a very direct way, which sometimes can be very painful: the women's friendship was never encouraged, and frequently seemed like gossip.


If we think about higher education, women had to wait until the beginning of the 19th century to really be able to be part of most universities, which is the main source of new relationships in early adult life. Just as reference, the University of Cambridge was founded in 1209. Women's networking was reduced to close family and neighbors, and even this very limited interaction was competing with relentless housework.


As well pointed by Evans, sixty percent of women's prime-age years were spent either pregnant or nursing. This undercut women’s ability to pursue skilled trades, gain economic autonomy, and expand their social networks. Our species, Homo sapiens, has been around for 300,000 years, however the ability to control female reproduction is about 60 years old, cultural and economical liberation for women is still in progress. We are among the first generations of life on earth that can choose not to reproduce, and we can talk about it with our college's girlfriends.


I'm extremely happy to see human society evolving, and to see my girlfriends achieving amazing things, but nevertheless it is always good to remember that our status today was not always granted.


Time to brew another cup of coffee.

Let's do a quick exercise, look at your last three purchases. I bought one digital book, energy gels (marathon training in high gear!), one sheet set. Sounds pretty disconnected, but all of these three have one thing in common: I bought them using my phone, at home. I didn't use cash, I didn't even provide my credit card details, I paid using my Apple Pay: double click and face recognition - done.


Finance is undergoing a profound transformation. Digital technologies are reshaping payments, lending, insurance and wealth management, a process that COVID-19 has accelerated, enabling business to happen without needing physical interactions between consumers and providers.

Mobile wallets are a good starting point to think about Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) and Decentralized Finance (DeFi). The core of financial services is the transfer of resources between individuals directly over time, however, behind the sensation of direct transfer, the mobile wallet requires an intermediate to process the transaction between parties, in this case a bank.


DeFi is a general term for a variety of financial applications in cryptocurrency or blockchain that operates without centralized intermediaries or institutions. DeFi enthusiasts are eager to promote efficiency, transparency, innovation and financial inclusion.


According to Nic Carter, a well known advocate of bitcoin and crypto,"The goal of automating the delivery of financial services and reducing human dependencies also has the congruent effect of reducing oversight and control. Disintermediating traditional intermediaries reduces high fees and entry friction, but also creates new opportunities for new types of intermediaries."


DeFi Building Blocks - by Wharton Initiative on Financial Policy and Regulation DeFi takes advantage of various technologies developed in the blockchain sphere. All have applications outside of DeFi, but play essential roles within the DeFi ecosystem. Blockchains: Distributed ledgers serving as the settlement layer for transactions. Currently, most DeFi 5 servicesoperateontheEthereumnetwork,duetoitscapabilitiesanddeveloperadoption. DeFiactivityis growing on and across other blockchains as well. Digital Assets: Tokens representing value that can be traded or transferred within a blockchain network. Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies were the first blockchain-based digital assets. Others have a range of intended functions beyond payments. Wallets: Software interfaces for users to manage assets stored on a blockchain. With a non-custodial wallet, the user has exclusive control of funds through their private keys. With custodial wallets, private keys are managed by a service provider.

Smart Contracts: Blockchain-based software code that carries out, controls, and documents relevant events and actions according to predefined terms and rules. Decentralized Applications (Dapps): Software applications built out of smart contracts, often integrated with user-facing interfaces using traditional web technology. Governance Systems: Software-based mechanisms that manage changes to smart contracts or other blockchain protocols, often based on tokens that allocate voting rights to stakeholders. Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs): Entities whose rules are defined and enforced in the form of smart contracts. Stablecoins: Digital assets whose values are pegged to a fiat currency, a basket of fiat currencies or other stable-value assets. Oracles: Data feeds that allow information from sources off the blockchain, such as the current price of a stock or a fiat currency, to be integrated into DeFi services.


DeFi leverages blockchain technology to facilitate alternatives to traditional service providers and market structures. Ethereum or other cryptos can be used for services such as lending in markets created and maintained by automated programmes.


According to the website DeFi Pulse, (crypto) collateral pledged for DeFi-type projects already exceeds $80bn.


Related Links:

https://wifpr.wharton.upenn.edu/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/DeFi-Beyond-the-Hype.pdf

https://defipulse.com

https://celsius.network/about-us